The main clinical manifestations of kidney disease: different degrees of fatigue, lethargy, low back pain, Yaoxisuanruan, blood pressure, urine, increase or decrease of urinary protein, occult blood, eyelid edema, edema of lower limbs. If you do not take timely treatment measures, will make the disease continues to deteriorate. During the period of uremia, systemic edema, anemia, pruritus, nausea and vomiting, electrolyte disturbance, acidosis, serum creatinine and urea nitrogen increase. Late in the viscera, even pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, leading to multiple organ failure, the condition is more protracted.
When found that the constitution has the following abnormal situation, that is, the typical signs of kidney disease:
Edema: often in the eyelid, and lower limbs, severe systemic edema, even chest and abdominal dropsy. Edema due to sodium and water retention caused by a sudden weight gain is the most sensitive indicator of sodium and water retention, but not necessarily the sodium and water retention showed edema physical symptoms, sometimes hidden edema, general adult extracellular fluid to increase more than 3kg, will appear edema.
Renal edema is more common in glomerulopathy, tubular and interstitial disease, usually without edema. (except for renal failure), which is one of the two differential diagnosis of the disease.
Hypertension: General nephropathy develops to a certain extent will appear in a small number of patients with hypertension, hypertension and nephropathy early; primary hypertension induced nephropathy was first caused by hypertension after renal damage, so with a long time to regularly check the renal function in hypertension. Renal hypertension is commonly referred to as renal parenchymal hypertension. Hypertension is an important complication of renal parenchymal disease, so the correct treatment of hypertension has become a prominent and urgent problem. Cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death in dialysis and renal transplant patients because of high blood pressure (i.e., left ventricular enlargement, heart failure, retinopathy, etc.). In addition, high blood pressure will further damage the kidneys, resulting in accelerated progression of renal parenchymal lesions. Therefore, the hypertension of renal parenchyma disease is harmful and should be treated actively.
Anemia: some of the reasons are hematuria caused by blood loss; more is due to kidney damage caused by the secretion of erythropoietin anemia. Appear sallow complexion, body weakness, dry hair and other symptoms.
Low back pain: the performance of lumbar pain or pain, kidney stones can be colic.
Urination is not normal: foam in urine increased significantly, or red urine, urinary frequency, urgency, opacity, polyuria, oliguria or anuria etc..
Proteinuria: abnormal increase in urine protein, which is the main cause of glomerular damage:
The lesion of glomerular filtration membrane for protein permeability;
The charged filtration membrane changes, normal glomerular capillary membrane with negative charge, and the endothelial basement membrane layer has this effect, so the filtration membrane with electrostatic barrier function, limit the negatively charged substances through. But the protein is negatively charged, it is normal to pass through the filtration membrane. When the filtration membrane for lesion and charge change, it is easy to protein. To be clear, glomerular proteinuria is caused by an increase in glomerular filtration, rather than a reduction in renal tubular reabsorption, nor is it an increase in urinary secretory protein, so the time of albuminuria with albumin based. But because of the renal tubular reabsorption of tubular fluid of the protein can not be adequately, also can appear albuminuria, mainly small molecular weight protein. Sometimes no glomerular and tubular damage, but because in the absence of disease, abnormal increase in blood protein, these small molecular weight proteins by glomerular filtration membrane too much, more than the ability of renal tubular reabsorption of it, also can appear albuminuria (overflow proteinuria), as in multiple myeloma lesions, although no renal damage can be found in the urine, abnormal globulin.
Hematuria: hematuria may have serious urinary system diseases, including malignant tumors. It is worth mentioning that, even if hematuria is slight, intermittent and asymptomatic, we should pay enough attention to the cause of the disease in detail, so as not to delay the diagnosis and treatment.